Bubonic plague essay conclusion
The German countryside was mottled with abandoned settlements. Two thirds of named villages disappeared in Thuringia, Anhalt, and the eastern Harz mountains, one fifth in southwestern Germany, and one third in the Rhenish palatinate, abandonment far exceeding loss of population and possibly arising from migration from smaller to larger villages Gottfried, ; Pounds, The vibrancy of the high medieval economy is generally conceded.
Student Essay Sample about The Black Plague
As the first millennium gave way to the second, urban life revived, trade and manufacturing flourished, merchant and craft gilds emerged, commercial and financial innovations proliferated e. The integration of the high medieval economy reached its zenith c. How to characterize the late medieval economy has been more fraught with controversy, however. Historians a century past, uncomprehending of how their modern world could be rooted in a retrograde economy, imagined an entrepreneurially creative and expansive late medieval economy.
Success or failure was equally possible after the Black Death and the game favored adaptability, creativity, nimbleness, opportunism, and foresight. Once the magna pestilencia had passed, the city had to cope with a labor supply even more greatly decimated than in the countryside due to a generally higher urban death rate. The city, however, could reverse some of this damage by attracting, as it had for centuries, new workers from the countryside, a phenomenon that deepened the crisis for the manorial lord and contributed to changes in rural settlement.
A resurgence of the slave trade occurred in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, where the female slave from Asia or Africa entered domestic service in the city and the male slave toiled in the countryside. Finding more labor was not, however, a panacea. A peasant or slave performed an unskilled task adequately but could not necessarily replace a skilled laborer. The gross loss of talent due to the plague caused a decline in per capita productivity by skilled labor remediable only by time and training Hunt and Murray, ; Miskimin, Another immediate consequence of the Black Death was dislocation of the demand for goods.
A suddenly and sharply smaller population ensured a glut of manufactured and trade goods, whose prices plummeted for a time. The Black Death transformed the structure of demand as well. While the standard of living of the peasant improved, chronically low prices for grain and other agricultural products from the late fourteenth century may have deprived the peasant of the additional income to purchase enough manufactured or trade items to fill the hole in commercial demand.
In the city, however, the plague concentrated wealth, often substantial family fortunes, in fewer and often younger hands, a circumstance that, when coupled with lower prices for grain, left greater per capita disposable income. Pessimism and the specter of death spurred an individualistic pursuit of pleasure, a hedonism that manifested itself in the purchase of luxuries, especially in Italy. Even with a reduced population, the gross volume of luxury goods manufactured and sold rose, a pattern of consumption that endured even after the extra income had been spent within a generation or so after the magna pestilencia.
Like the manorial lord, the affluent urban bourgeois sometimes employed structural impediments to block the ambitious parvenu from joining his ranks and becoming a competitor. A tendency toward limiting the status of gild master to the son or son—in—law of a sitting master, evident in the first half of the fourteenth century, gained further impetus after the Black Death. Women also were banished from gilds as unwanted competition. The urban wage laborer, by and large controlled by the gilds, was denied membership and had no access to urban structures of power, a potent source of frustration.
While these measures may have permitted the bourgeois to hold his ground for a time, the winds of change were blowing in the city as well as the countryside and gild monopolies and gild restrictions were fraying by the close of the Middle Ages. In the new climate created by the Black Death, the individual businessman did retain an advantage: the business judgment and techniques honed during the high Middle Ages.
This was crucial in a contracting economy in which gross productivity never attained its high medieval peak and in which the prevailing pattern was boom and bust on a roughly generational basis. A fluctuating economy demanded adaptability and the most successful post—plague businessman not merely weathered bad times but located opportunities within adversity and exploited them. The successful post—plague businessman observed markets closely and responded to them while exercising strict control over his concern, looking for greater efficiency, and trimming costs Hunt and Murray, The fortunes of the textile industry, a trade singularly susceptible to contracting markets and rising wages, best underscores the importance of flexibility.
Competition among textile manufacturers, already great even before the Black Death due to excess productive capacity, was magnified when England entered the market for low— and medium—quality woolen cloth after the magna pestilencia and was exporting forty—thousand pieces annually by The English took advantage of proximity to raw material, wool England itself produced, a pattern increasingly common in late medieval business.
Flemish producers that emphasized higher—grade, luxury textiles or that purchased, improved, and resold cheaper English cloth prospered while those that stubbornly competed head—to—head with the English in lower—quality woolens suffered. The Italians not only produced luxury woolens, improved their domestically—produced wool, found sources for wool outside England Spain , and increased production of linen but also produced silks and cottons, once only imported into Europe from the East Hunt and Murray, The new mentality of the successful post—plague businessman is exemplified by the Florentines Gregorio Dati and Buonaccorso Pitti and especially the celebrated merchant of Prato, Francesco di Marco Datini.
The large companies and super companies, some of which failed even before the Black Death, were not well suited to the post—plague commercial economy. Datini through voluminous correspondence with his business associates, subordinates, and agents and his conspicuously careful and regular accounting grasped the reins of his concern tightly.
He insulated himself from undue risk by never committing too heavily to any individual venture, by dividing cargoes among ships or by insuring them, by never lending money to notoriously uncreditworthy princes, and by remaining as apolitical as he could. His energy and drive to complete every business venture likewise served him well and made him an exemplar for commercial success in a challenging era Origo, ; Hunt and Murray, The late medieval popular uprising, a phenomenon with undeniable economic ramifications, is often linked with the demographic, cultural, social, and economic reshuffling caused by the Black Death; however, the connection between pestilence and revolt is neither exclusive nor linear.
Any single uprising is rarely susceptible to a single—cause analysis and just as rarely was a single socioeconomic interest group the fomenter of disorder. The outbreak of rebellion in the first half of the fourteenth century e. Some explanations for popular uprising, such as the placing of immediate stresses on the populace and the cumulative effect of centuries of oppression by manorial lords, are now largely dismissed. At times of greatest stress —— the Great Famine and the Black Death —— disorder but no large—scale, organized uprising materialized.
After the Black Death, change was inevitable and apparent to all. The reasons for any individual rebellion were complex.
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The regressive Poll Taxes of and also contributed to the discontent. It is furthermore noteworthy that the rebellion began in relatively affluent eastern England, not in the poorer west or north. Once the value of the penny was restored to its former level in the rebellion in fact subsided. In sum, the Black Death played some role in each uprising but, as with many medieval phenomena, it is difficult to gauge its importance relative to other causes. The rebellions in any event achieved little. Promises made to the rebels were invariably broken and brutal reprisals often followed.
The lot of the lower socioeconomic strata was improved incrementally by the larger economic changes already at work. The European economy at the close of the Middle Ages c. In the countryside, a freer peasant derived greater material benefit from his toil. Fixed rents if not outright ownership of land had largely displaced customary dues and services and, despite low grain prices, the peasant more readily fed himself and his family from his own land and produced a surplus for the market. Yields improved as reduced population permitted a greater focus on fertile lands and more frequent fallowing, a beneficial phenomenon for the peasant.
More pronounced socioeconomic gradations developed among peasants as some, especially more prosperous ones, exploited the changed circumstances, especially the availability of land. As the Middle Ages waned, the lord was commonly a pure rentier whose income was subject to the depredations of inflation.
In trade and manufacturing, the relative ease of success during the high Middle Ages gave way to greater competition, which rewarded better business practices and leaner, meaner, and more efficient concerns. Greater sensitivity to the market and the cutting of costs ultimately rewarded the European consumer with a wider range of good at better prices. In the long term, the demographic restructuring caused by the Black Death perhaps fostered the possibility of new economic growth.
In this environment, survivors also benefited from the technological and commercial skills developed during the course of the high Middle Ages. Viewed from another perspective, the Black Death was a cataclysmic event and retrenchment was inevitable, but it ultimately diminished economic impediments and opened new opportunity. Aberth, John. New York: Routledge, Aston, T. Philpin, eds.
Student Essay Sample about The Black Plague
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Bailey, Mark D. A Marginal Economy? Benedictow, Ole J. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, Bleukx, Koenraad.
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England as a Case Study. Pars Posterior: Cultura Medievalis , edited by W. Verbeke, M. Haverals, R. Goossens, 64— Leuven: Leuven University Press, Blockmans, Willem P. Bolton, Jim L. Ormrod and P. Stamford: Paul Watkins, Bowsky, William M. Campbell, Bruce M.
drumsexpress.com/lases-how-i.php Manchester: Manchester University Press, It was caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, which causes different types of plague such as bubonic plague. Originally from central Asia, the black plague gradually spread to the European continent and reached its peak between The disease was brought by rats that were on board of merchant fleets coming to the Mediterranean. The number of people who died during this period is believed to be up to million, more than half of Europe's population.
Jews, beggars, and foreigners were persecuted people believed they were the cause of the Black Death. When you are asked to write a black death essay use a sample paper to outline your work. Also, include a brief but captivating introduction and conclusion for essays on Black Death.
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Since peasants had worse living conditions than the nobility, they were far more likely to catch the. The Black Death had a lot of gruesome and scary symptoms that made bystanders sick just watching. Since peasants had worse living conditions than the nobility, they were far more likely to catch the Plague.